Kerosines

kero 77 KEROSINE

Kerosene, paraffin, or lamp oil is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in aviation as well as households. Its name derives from Greek: (keros) meaning "wax", and was registered as a trademark by Canadian geologist and inventor Abraham Gesner in 1854 before evolving into a generic trademark. It is sometimes spelled kerosine in scientific and industrial usage. The term kerosene is common in much of Argentina, Australia, Canada, India, Iran ,New Zealand, Nigeria, and the United States, while the term paraffin (or a closely related variant) is used in Chile, eastern Africa, South Africa, Norway, and in the United Kingdom.[The term lamp oil, or the equivalent in the local languages, is common in the majority of Asia and the Southeastern United States.Liquid paraffin (called mineral oil in the US) is a more viscous and highly refined product which is used as a laxative. Paraffin wax is a waxy solid extracted from petroleum. kerosine is also one of the most popular oil fuels that are used in various industries, domestic, agriculture, aircraft and military aircraft.

The ASTM International standard specification D-3699-78 recognizes two grades of kerosene: grades 1-K (less than 0.04% sulfur by weight) and 2-K (0.3% sulfur by weight). 1-K-grade kerosene burns cleaner with fewer deposits, fewer toxins, and less frequent maintenance than 2-K-grade kerosene, and is the preferred grade of kerosene for indoor kerosene heaters and stoves.

Regardless of crude oil source or processing history, kerosene's major components are branched- and straight-chain alkanes and naphthenes (cycloalkanes), which normally account for at least 70% by volume. Aromatic hydrocarbons in this boiling range, such as alkylbenzenes (single ring) and alkylnaphthalenes (double ring), do not normally exceed 25% by volume of kerosene streams. Olefins are usually not present at more than 5% by volume.

Chemically, kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbons. The chemical composition depends on its source, but it usually consists of about 10 different hydrocarbons, each containing 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule. The main constituents are saturated straight-chain and branched-chain paraffins, as well as ring-shaped cycloparaffins (also known as naphthenes). Kerosene is less volatile than gasoline. Its flash point (the temperature at which it will generate a flammable vapour near its surface) is 38 °C (100 °F) or higher, whereas that of gasoline is as low as −40 °C (−40 °F). This property makes kerosene a relatively safe fuel to store and handle.

With a boiling point between about 150 and 300 °C (300–575 °F), kerosene is considered to be one of the so-called middle distillates of crude oil, along with diesel fuel. It can be produced as “straight-run kerosene,” separated physically from the other crude oil fractions by distillation, or it can be produced as “cracked kerosene,” by chemically decomposing, or cracking, heavier portions of the oil at elevated temperatures.

kerosine of heavier gasoline is lighter than gasoil( all Diesels) ,and has astandard dencity @ 15 ˚C = (800-820 )kg / m3

1- LAMPA : For household use, lighting, agriculture is heavy industries

kero 1

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  2-ATK:  AVIATION TURBINE  KEROSINE is a special passenger and commercial  jet turbines that are often turbofen and are known as Jet A & Jet A-1 & Jet B (Special additives avoided moisture and freezing) & ATK is kerosene that is used as jet fuel to power the engines of jet aircrafts and some rockets. The product can also be adapted such that it can be used for aviation vehicles and within the household. When the product is adapted for such capacity, it is then referred to as Dual Purpose Kerosene (DPK).

Kerosene is widely used to power jet engines of aircraft (jet fuel), as well as some rocket engines in a highly refined form called RP-1. It is also commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel, and for fire toys such as poi. In parts of Asia, kerosene is sometimes used as fuel for small outboard motors or even motorcycles. World total kerosene consumption for all purposes is equivalent to about 190,000 cubic metres (6.7 million cubic feet) per day. 

atk1

 atk 2

iranair 1

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3-JP: JET PROPELLANT Special jet engines (jet turbines) are military jet airplanes (or helicopters), which forms at least 75% fuel, and is kept very low by specific additives. JP1-JP2- ........................ .jp8

JP-4 used to be the primary jet fuel for the USAF but was phased out in the 1990s because of safety problems. A few airforces around the world still use it but there is very little production.

JP-4 is the military equivalent of Jet B with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-4. The UK Military specification for this grade is DEF STAN 91-88 AVTAG/FSII (formerly DERD 2454),where FSII stands for Fuel Systems Icing Inhibitor.

JP-8 is the military equivalent of Jet A-1 with the addition of corrosion inhibitor and anti-icing additives; it meets the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-T-83188D. It is the dominant military jet fuel grade for NATO airforces. The UK also have a specification for this grade namely DEF STAN 91-87 AVTUR/FSII (formerly DERD 2453).

 JP-5 is a high flash point kerosine meeting the requirements of the U.S. Military Specification MIL-PRF-5624S Grade JP-5. The UK Military specification for this grade is DEF STAN 91-86 AVCAT/FSII (formerly DERD 2452). This is primarily jet fuel for use in aircraft carriers.

atk 4 

MILLITARY JET FUELS  : JP4  ,  JP5 , JP7  , JP8 , JP54 , ST1

 

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SOME MILLITARY JET FUELS SPECIFICATIONS TABLE :

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 kerosene, also spelled kerosine, also called paraffin or paraffin oil, flammable hydrocarbon liquid commonly used as a fuel. Kerosene is typically pale yellow or colourless and has a not-unpleasant characteristic odour. It is obtained from petroleum and is used for burning in kerosene lamps and domestic heaters or furnaces, as a fuel or fuel component for jet engines, and as a solvent for greases and insecticides.

Discovered by Canadian physician Abraham Gesner in the late 1840s, kerosene was initially manufactured from coal tar and shale oils. However, following the drilling of the first oil well in Pennsylvania by E.L. Drake in 1859, petroleum quickly became the major source of kerosene. Because of its use in lamps, kerosene was the major refinery product for several decades until the advent of the electric lamp reduced its value for lighting. Production further declined as the rise of the automobile established gasoline as an important petroleum product. Nevertheless, in many parts of the world, kerosene is still a common heating and cooking fuel as well as a fuel for lamps. Standard commercial jet fuel is essentially a high-quality straight-run kerosene, and many military jet fuels are blends based on kerosene.

You, as our dear customer and as our audience, can use our products whenever you like. You can do the process of ordering your desired product according to your opinion and enjoy driving quietly and calmly. Also, our team will contact you immediately and will provide you with the necessary advice regarding any kerosines
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