Gasolines

merc 2

 

Gasoline was at first produced by distillation, simply separating the volatile, more valuable fractions of crude petroleum. Later processes, designed to raise the yield of gasoline from crude oil, split large molecules into smaller ones by processes known as cracking.

 

Thermal cracking, employing heat and high pressures, was introduced in 1913 but was replaced after 1937 by catalytic cracking, the application of catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions producing more gasoline.

 

Other methods used to improve the quality of gasoline and increase its supply include polymerization, converting gaseous olefins, such as propylene and butylene, into larger molecules in the gasoline range; alkylation, a process combining an olefin and a paraffin such as isobutane; isomerization, the conversion of straight-chain hydrocarbons to branched-chain hydrocarbons; and reforming, using either heat or a catalyst to rearrange the molecular structure.

 

Gasoline, also spelled gasolene, also called gas or petrol, mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats.

 

Originally a by-product of the petroleum industry (kerosene being the principal product), gasoline became the preferred automobile fuel because of its high energy of combustion and capacity to mix readily with air in a carburetor.

 

euroemi100
euroemi101


Gasoline is a complex mixture of  different hydrocarbons. Most are saturated and contain 5 to 10 carbon atoms per molecule. Gasoline used in automobiles boils mainly between 34°C( IBP) and 200°C (FBP), the blend being adjusted to sea altitude and season of year . Aviation gasoline contains smaller proportions of both the less-volatile and more-volatile components than automobile gasoline.

 

Gasoline types are  : regular , super , Euro , Aviation 

The antiknock characteristics of a gasoline—its ability to resist knocking, which indicates that the combustion of fuel vapour in the cylinder is taking place too rapidly for efficiency—is expressed in octane number.

 

The addition of tetraethyllead to retard the combustion was initiated in the 1930s but was discontinued in the 1980s because of the toxicity of the lead compounds discharged in the combustion products.

 

Other additives to gasoline often include detergents to reduce the buildup of engine deposits, anti-icing agents to prevent stalling caused by carburetor icing, and antioxidants (oxidation inhibitors) used to reduce “gum” formation.

 

gaso 2

 

The quality value of a gasoline product is determined by the number of octane (Good degree of combustion and low noise of knock inside the engine) ,The closer the octane number is to 100 or higher than 100, the better the gasoline will burn . In many countries it is displayed only by comparison with octane: RON.

But recently, they are also showing on the MON, and there are also countries that show the quality of gasoline with  as a formula  AKI = (RON+MON)/2

RON = Research Octane Number ( the low noise  burning number of a gasoline fuel compared with iso-octane and with low load)

MON =Motor Octane Number (The low noise burning number of a gasoline fuel broaches a real high load single cylinder engine)

AKI  = Anti Knock Index (Anti-knock index inside the gasoline engine, which is the ratio of the sum of the Octane numbers of parts to 2)

NOTE  : all time Octane Numbers are  RON > AKI > MON

Gasoline products have a fixed standard specifications due to global consumption and are considered a large market .The octane number is for gasoline fuels only.

 

g12
g13

 

Types of gasoline 

1- Motor gasoline :  The quality of the vehicle gasoline has a direct relationship with the octane number(RON), and the octane number is closer to 100%. The color of gasoline is never a sign of quality, but to identify the type of gasolines as well as fire prevention (the initial color of gasoline is the same  kerosines, it's just like white)

gaso7

2-Aviation gasoline are 2 types

1-Octane number is  100/130 : This kind of gasoline is used for styled light and recreational aircraft that has a piston motor like the car.

  2-Octane number is : 110/145: This kind of gasoline is used for consumption of mallow and piston aircraft

Avgas (aviation gasoline, also known as aviation spirit in the UK) is an aviation fuel used in aircraft with spark-ignited internal combustion engines. Avgas is distinguished from conventional gasoline (petrol) used in motor vehicles, which is termed mogas (motor gasoline) in an aviation context.

 

Unlike motor gasoline, which has been formulated since the 1970s to allow the use of platinum-content catalytic converters for pollution reduction, the most commonly used grades of avgas still contain tetraethyllead (TEL), a toxic substance used to prevent engine knocking (premature detonation). There are ongoing experiments aimed at eventually reducing or eliminating the use of TEL in aviation gasoline.


Kerosene-based jet fuel is formulated to suit the requirements of turbine engines which have no octane requirement and operate over a much wider flight envelope than piston engines. Kerosene is also used by most diesel piston engines developed for aviation use, such as those by SMA Engines, Austro Engine, and Thielert.

 
GASO100
GASO101

Table of aviation fuel grades
Grade Colour (Dye) Lead (Pb) content maximum (g/L) Additives Uses Availability
80/87 ("avgas 80") red
(red + a little blue)
0.14 TEL It was used in engines with low compression ratio. Phased out in the late 20th century. Its availability is very limited.]
82UL purple
(red + blue)
0 ASTM D6227; similar to automobile gasoline but without automotive additives As of 2008, 82UL is not being produced and no refiner has announced plans to put it into production.
85UL none 0 oxygenate-free Used to power piston-engine ultralight aircraft.
Motor Octane Number min 85. Research Octane Number min 95]

91/96 brown
(orange + blue + red)
almost negligible TEL Made particularly for military use.
91/96UL none 0 ethanol-free, antioxidant and antistatic additives ASTM D7547 In 1991, Hjelmco Oil introduced unleaded avgas 91/96UL (also meeting leaded grade 91/98 standard ASTM D910 with the exception of transparent colour) and no lead in Sweden. Engine manufacturers Teledyne Continental Motors, Textron Lycoming, Rotax, and radial engine manufacturer Kalisz have cleared the Hjelmco avgas 91/96UL which in practice means that the fuel can be used in more than 90% of the piston aircraft fleet worldwide. May be used in Rotax engines, and Lycoming engines per SI1070R. In November 2010, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) cleared this fuel for all aircraft where the aircraft engine manufacturer has approved this fuel, based on about 20 years of trouble-free operations with unleaded avgas 91/96UL produced by Hjelmco Oil.
B91/115 green
(yellow + blue)
1.60 TEL; see standard GOST 1012-72 Specially formulated for Shvetsov ASh-62 and Ivchenko AI-14 – nine-cylinder, air-cooled, radial aircraft engines. The Commonwealth of Independent States, produced exclusively by OBR PR.
100LL blue 0.56 TEL
As of January 2010, 100LL has a maximum of 0.56 grams of lead (.875 gr of TEL) per Litre. This is equivalent to 2.12 grams of lead per US gallon of gasoline. (As a comparison standpoint, this lies within the same range as the lead content of on-road automotive gasoline from 1973.)
Most commonly used aviation gasoline. Common in North America and western Europe, limited availability elsewhere worldwide.
100/130

("avgas 100")

green
(yellow + blue)
1.12 TEL Mostly replaced by 100LL. As of August 2013, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, and the states of Hawaii and Utah in the United States.
100VLL blue 0.45 TEL
As of January 2011, 100VLL has a maximum of 0.45 grams of lead per Litre.
Very low lead substitute for 100/130LL
G100UL none 0 aromatic compounds such as xylene or mesitylene Composed primarily of aviation alkylate (same as used for 100LL). As of August 2013, limited quantities are produced for testing.
UL102 none 0 n/a Swift Fuels LLC blend of 83% mesitylene, 17% isopentane Limited quantities are produced for testing.
115/145 ("avgas 115") purple
(red + blue)
1.29 TEL, historically xylidine Originally used as primary fuel for the largest, boost-supercharged radial engines needing this fuel's anti-detonation properties. Limited batches are produced for special events such as unlimited air races.

 

gasoline, also called gas or petrol, mixture of volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. It is also used as a solvent for oils and fats.  

 

gaso110
gaso111



Gasoline was at first produced by distillation, simply separating the volatile, more valuable fractions of crude petroleum. Later processes, designed to raise the yield of gasoline from crude oil, split large molecules into smaller ones by processes known as cracking. Thermal cracking, employing heat and high pressures, was introduced in 1913 but was replaced after 1937 by catalytic cracking, the application of catalysts that facilitate chemical reactions producing more .

Gasoline is a complex mixture of hundreds of different hydrocarbons. Most are saturated and contain 4 to 12 carbon atoms per molecule. Gasoline used in automobiles boils mainly between 30° and 200° C (85° and 390° F), the blend being adjusted to altitude and season. Aviation gasoline contains smaller proportions of both the less-volatile and more-volatile components than automobile gasoline.

 

The antiknock characteristics of a gasoline—its ability to resist knocking, which indicates that the combustion of fuel vapour in the cylinder is taking place too rapidly for efficiency—is expressed in octane number.

 

The addition of tetraethyllead to retard the combustion was initiated in the 1930s but was discontinued in the 1980s because of the toxicity of the lead compounds discharged in the combustion products. Other additives to gasoline often include detergents to reduce the buildup of engine deposits, anti-icing agents to prevent stalling caused by carburetor icing, and antioxidants (oxidation inhibitors) used to reduce “gum” formation.

In the late 20th century the rising price of petroleum (and hence of gasoline) in many countries led to the increasing use of gasohol, which is a mixture of 90 percent unleaded gasoline and 10 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

 

Gasohol burns well in gasoline engines and is a desirable alternative fuel for certain applications because of the renewability of ethanol, which can be produced from grains, potatoes, and certain other plant matter. See also petroleum.

You, as our dear customer and as our audience, can use our products whenever you like. You can do the process of ordering your desired product according to your opinion and enjoy driving quietly and calmly. Also, our team will contact you immediately and will provide you with the necessary advice regarding any gasolines
.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------