Gsaes are the lightest products and products of an crude oil refinery or gas condensate. Natural gas, also called methane gas or natural methane gas, colourless highly flammable gaseous hydrocarbones consisting primarily of methane and etane. While burning natural gas does emit greenhouse gases, it contributes far
less CO2 and air pollutants than many of the fuels it is increasingly
replacing, especially coal. Natural gas use grew rapidly this past
decade, accounting for almost one-third of total energy demand growth,
more than any other fossil fuel. Its use in coming years is expected to
keep growing strongly in all the scenarios studied by the IEA, with
sharp divergences afterwards.
Its storability, its ability to be delivered through pipelines or
liquefied and sent by ship, as well as the ability of gas-fired power
plants to turn on and off quickly, allows natural gas to respond to both
seasonal and short-term demand fluctuations and to provide back-up to
the growing use of variable renewables such as wind and power. Still, as
part of global efforts to reach net zero emissions, natural gas use is
expected to come under pressure in some countries. It is a type of Petroleum that commonly occurs in association with crude oil.Iran holds 1,183 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven gas reserves as of 2017, ranking 2nd in the world and accounting for about
17% of the world's total natural gas reserves of 6,923 Tcf.
Iran has proven reserves equivalent to 161.9 times its annual consumption. This means it has about 162 years of gas left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).
Types of refinery gases:
1- Natural Gas: which mainly consumption is the same CH4 and a bit of C2H6, and there is little contamination and compact (CNG) for use in cars designed for CNG.
Natural gas (also called fossil gas; sometimes just gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane and commonly includes various amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. Natural gas is colorless and odorless, so a sulfur-smell (similar to rotten eggs) is usually added for early detection of leaks.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years.
The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.
Natural gas is a non-renewablehydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.
It is also used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals.
The extraction and consumption of natural gas is a major and growing driver of climate change. It is a potent greenhouse gas itself when released into the atmosphere, and creates carbon dioxide when burned.
Natural gas can be efficiently burned to generate heat and electricity, emitting less waste and toxins at the point of use relative to other fossil and biomass fuels.However, gas venting and flaring, along with unintended fugitive emissions throughout the supply chain, can result in a similar carbon footprint overall
Specifications (0.7 kg / m3-0.18kg / m3)
2-Liquid Gas: LPG: Liqufide Petroleum Gas is composed of two main factors of:( iso butane +normal butane and propane) and compressed to come in liquid and is very cold due to compression.
LPG is used as fuel gas in heating appliances , cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant , replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
When specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas. Propylene , butylenes and various other hydrocarbons are usually also present in small concentrations such as C2H6 , CH4 , and C3H8 . HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG to 5% and is utilized as an autogas specification.
A powerful odorant , ethanethiol , is added so that leaks can be detected easily. The internationally recognized European Standard is EN 589. In the United States, tetrahydrothiophene (thiophane) or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants although neither is currently being utilized.
Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found close to and with natural gas.
Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: biogenic and thermogenic. Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, landfills, and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material.Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, LP gas, or condensate) is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases, most commonly propane , butane , and propylene. However, the latter two typically compose 5% or less of the mixture.
Specific Gravity @ 15˚C = (0.5250-0.5800)
As its boiling point is below room temperature and heat, LPG will evaporate quickly at normal temperatures and pressures and is usually supplied in pressurized steel vessels. They are typically filled to 80–85% of their capacity to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid.
The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure, and temperature, but is typically around 250:1.
The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure, likewise varies depending on composition and temperature; for example, it is approximately 220 kilopascals (32 psi) for pure butane at 20 °C (68 °F), and approximately 2,200 kilopascals (320 psi) for pure propane at 55 °C (131 °F). LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, and thus will flow along floors and tend to settle in low spots, such as basements.
There are two main dangers to this. The first is a possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is within the explosive limits and there is an ignition source. The second is suffocation due to LPG displacing air, causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. LPG can be converted into alkylate which is a premium gasoline blending stock because it has exceptional anti-knock properties and gives clean burning.
A full LPG cylinder contains 86% liquid; the ullage volume will contain vapour at a pressure that varies with temperature.
As you can see, the storage tanks are completely spherical gas and the only reason for creating the pressure conditions of the content inside the reservoir to prevent any explosion and preservation of the reservoir.
In petroleum production, gas is sometimes burned as flare gas. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas.
The by-products of this processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
Natural gas is sometimes informally referred to simply as "gas", especially when it is being compared to other energy sources, such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, which is often shortened in colloquial usage to "gas", especially in North America.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, LP gas, or condensate) is a fuel gas made of petrol which contains a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases, most commonly propane, butane, and propylene. However, the latter two typically compose 5% or less of the mixture.
LPG is used as a fuel gas in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When specifically used as a vehicle fuel. it is often referred to as autogas.
Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG): A group of hydrocarbon gases, primarily propane, normal butane, and isobutane, derived from crude oil refining or natural gas processing. These gases may be marketed individually or mixed.
LPG—Liquid Petroleum Gas—is a flammable gas commonly used in residential
heating, cooking and hot water systems; as a fuel in cars; and in
industrial, agricultural, and manufacturing contexts.
LPG reaches the domestic consumer in cylinders under relatively low
pressures. The largest part of the LPG produced is used in central
heating systems, and the next largest as raw material for chemical
plants. LPG commonly is used as fuel for gas barbecue grills and gas cooktops and ovens, for gas fireplaces, and in portable
heaters. In Europe, LPG water heaters are common. It is also used as an
engine fuel and for backup generators.
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