A turbine is a device that harnesses the kinetic energy of some fluid - such as water, steam, air, or combustion gases - and turns this into the rotational motion of the device itself.Turbines are generally used in electrical generation, engines, and propulsion systems.
Turbines are machines (specifically turbomachines) because turbines transmit and modify energy. A simple turbine is composed of a series of blades - currently steel is one of the most common materials used - and allows the fluid to enter the turbine, pushing the blades.
These blades spin while the fluid flows through, capturing some of the energy as rotational motion. Fluid flowing through a turbine loses kinetic energy and exits the turbine with less energy than it started with.
Turbines are used in many different areas, and each type of turbine has a slightly different construction to perform its job properly. Turbines are used in wind power, hydropower, in heat engines, and for propulsion. Turbines are extremely important because of the fact that nearly all electricity is produced by turning mechanical energy from a turbine into electrical energy via a generator.
Turbine oil formulations are relatively simple; they are a mixture of the following ingredients: Base oil, corrosion inhibitors, oxidation inhibitors, defoamants, and demulsifiers. The base oil is usually 97 percent or more of the turbine oil formula.Turbine oil is one of the most important industrial lubricants that is increasingly used in heavy oil industries, refineries, petrochemicals, power plants, oil and gas transmission pipelines, commercial and military aircraft
The main indicator of any type of turbine oil number is the viscosity at 40 centigrade degrees and its naming is based on this.new turbine oils are formulated for superior protection against oxidation, sludge, and varnish. By combining quality base oils with highly effective additives, we've created some of the highest-performing turbine oils in the industry.
Some of the most significant changes include improved RPVOT retention, water separation, varnish and sludge protection, rust and corrosion reduction, and foam and entrained air release. We turbine oils to the test against leading industry competitors. The following test results proved that dramatically outperforms other turbine oils in industry standard tests.
Which oil is used in turbine?
Hydro turbines typically use ISO 46 or 68 R&O oils. Demulsibility and hydrolytic stability are the key performance parameters that impact turbine oil life due to the constant presence of water.
Can steam turbine operate without lubrication?
Steam turbines cannot operate without lubrication. Therefore, turbine lubricating oil systems must be designed, operated and maintained for extreme reliability. Lubricating oil systems affect overall facility loss prevention more than most mechanical systems.
Types of turbine oils:
ISO 18, ISO 22 , ISO 32 ,ISO 46, ISO 68, ISO 100,.. .
larger the numbers, the thicker and heavier the oil.
Most turbine oils have very important R&D properties that are highly resistant to Rust and Oxidation. Turbine oil, like other lubricants, is made of two main types, Mineral or Fully Synthetic.
The higher the technology of the devices, the more the use of Fully Synthetic turbine oil increases.Choosing the wrong lubricant can have serious consequences, including unexpected shutdowns and high labor costs associated with frequent cleaning and filtering of lubrication systems and inspection of journal bearings.
Due to the high costs and environmental problems caused by changing the oil in turbines, in recent years the interest in monitoring the oil working conditions of these equipments has increased.
It is used for long periods of time, such as high temperature, water pollution and long time in service, using tactics that increase the performance of the equipment, are strongly considered.
What type of oil is used to lubricate gas turbine engines?
The synthetic oil used in turbine engines is usually packaged in one-quart cans of sealed plastic. Synthetic oils specifically developed for turbine engines meet all the lubricating oil requirements.
There are two main advantages to synthetic oil over petroleum oil.Turbines are used in wind power, hydropower, in heat engines, and for propulsion. Turbines are extremely important because of the fact that nearly all electricity is produced by turning mechanical energy from a turbine into electrical energy via a generator.
Turbine oil is generally under high temperature and pressure conditions, so to ensure the continuous operation of the turbine, it must have good properties such as:
The appropriate viscosity depends on the type of turbine, such as large turbines or marine turbines with gear gearboxes.
The high capacity of separating water from oil, which has good degradability in this type of turbines, there is usually the formation of water-in-oil emulsion.
The presence of water may be due to condensation, leakage, etc., and the oil should be separated from the water immediately.
Non-corrosive and prevent the formation of rust.
Both of these effects occur on metal components, but it is recommended to separate them.
Corrosion is a chemical reaction caused by oxidation products in oil that may be corrosive to certain metals. Rust is a reaction that occurs due to the presence of weather on iron and steel.
Oxidation stability because oils oxidize when exposed to high temperatures or in contact with air, forming acids and oxidation compounds.
Resistance to foaming, which is actually foam due to constant contact with air, changes the properties of lubricants and causes their oxidation.
Air-oil separation capacity that quickly removes air from oil and system design to prevent the formation of oil-air emulsions is important.
Stability in long-term storage, considering the long life of these oils, they must be stable and maintain their properties for a long time.
Turbine Oil is a very high-quality, rust and oxidation
(R&O)-inhibited circulating oil developed for use in industrial
steam turbines, rotary air compressors, and many other industrial
applications. It is specially formulated to protect against sludge and
varnish formation to provide long service life.
|Specific Gravity @ 60°F
|Density, lbs/gal @ 60°F
|Color, ASTM D1500
|Flash Point (COC), °C (°F), ASTM D92
|Pour Point, °C (°F). ASTM D97
|Viscosity, ASTM D445
|cSt @ 40°C
|cSt @ 100°C
|Viscosity Index, ASTM D2270
|Acid Number, ASTM D974, mg KOH/g
|Air Release, ASTM D3427, minutes
|Copper Corrosion, ASTM D130, 3 hrs @ 100°C
|Demulsibility, ASTM D1401, minutes to pass
|Foam Test, ASTM D892, Seq. I, mL
|Foam Test, ASTM D892, Seq. II, mL
|Foam Test, ASTM D892, Seq. III, mL
|TOST, ASTM D943-04a, hours
|RPVOT, ASTM D2272, minutes
Rust Test, ASTM D665 A&B
new turbine oils are formulated for superior protection against oxidation, sludge, and varnish. By combining quality base oils with highly effective additives, we've created some of the highest-performing turbine oils in the industry.
Some of the most significant changes include improved RPVOT retention, water separation, varnish & sludge protection, rust & corrosion reduction, foam and entrained air release. We put turbine oils to the test against leading industry competitors. The following test results proved that dramatically outperforms other turbine oils in industry standard tests.
Is turbine oil the same as hydraulic oil ?
The turbine oil is used as a hydraulic fluid. The governor along with the turbine servomotors are the hydraulic system.
Heat engines use turbines (as well as pistons) because they can efficiently extract energy from fluids. Additionally, turbines require fairly little maintenance.
Gas turbines are used frequently in heat engines as they are one of the most flexible types of turbines. One specific application of these gas turbines is in jet engines. In these gas turbines, compressed air is heated and mixed with some fuel. When this mixture ignites it undergoes rapid expansion.
The expanding air is pushed into the turbine, causing it to spin. Since they use compressed air, high altitudes do not affect the efficiency of the turbines, making them ideal for use in airplanes.. A diagram of a gas turbine is shown in Figure 2 below.
A diagram of a gas turbine (supersonic military jet turbine) engine
Technical training is a crucial component of employee development and business success because it addresses the hard skills that your employees need to perform their daily tasks accurately. It's critical that your organization creates a space where learners have the opportunity to learn from expertly crafted learning content and practice their skills within a safe environment.
turbine oils were developed specially for use in water, gas and steam turbines (with and without gears) as well for turbo compressors and transmission compressors (Turbine Oil MT series). They stand out through their carefully selected, high-quality base oils and perfectly matched, zinc-free additives. In particular, when using turbines in power stations, reliable operation is of decisive importance.
Faults, failures and unplanned downtimes endanger the supply security and can cause enormous costs. Use Yekta turbine oils to guarantee long service lives of systems and lubricants as well as to minimise the time and costs for maintenance and oil changes.
Turbines are turbomachines that use a working medium to transfer mechanical energy to the machine to be driven. There are many lubrication points in a turbine that have hydrodynamic conditions. The bearings of the turbines are hydrostatic and prevent mixed friction. This means that turbine oils can be used for a long time. This is done at high temperature, speed and, if necessary, humidity. The turbine oils must lubricate various components and function as hydraulic oil, bearing lubricating oil, transmission oil and cooling fluid.
Turbine oils operate in a high-speed range and the oils are exposed to high temperatures. This requires high thermal and oxidative stability.
Especially a good air release capacity of the oils is desirable in order to prevent foam formation in the oil. Too much air in the turbine oil drastically reduces the lubricating properties. Foaming can lead to delayed reactions in hydraulics and cavitation in pumps and bearings.
Turbine oils are generally based on base oils with good demulsifying properties (water separation). When used in steam or water turbines, the oils come into contact with water and must be very robust in this respect. If the water remains permanently in the lubrication circuit, there is a risk of bearing damage. In this respect, resistance to corrosion and rust is also decisive, as water attacks the metals.
A critical limit for the water content in the oil is 1000 ppm or 0.1%. The value may vary depending on the system.Also important for a good turbine oil is its filterability in order to remain operational for a long time and to prevent oil ageing. Purity, viscosity and wear protection must be given to a high degree in order to lubricate a turbine reliably.
The filling quantities of the oil can be up to several thousand litres per application area. Therefore, a long-term use without oil change is desirable. The oil is used up to 20 years without changing.
Additives in turbine oil
In general, turbine oils contain a relatively small amount of additives. The base oil quality mainly determines the performance of a turbine oil. However, the addition of additives cannot be completely dispensed with. Important additives in turbine oils are:
- Anti-corrosion additives
- Wear protection additives (for turbines with gears)
- Demulsifiers (increase of water separation)
- Foam inhibitors (prevention of foam formation)
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