Engine Oil ( PCMO)


Engine Oil

is one of the fundamental products needed to run your car, as it lubricates the engine to prevent the pistons seizing or exploding

4 Types Of Automotive Lubricants:
  • Engine Oil And Gear Oil: Engine oil (also known as motor oil) is usually very fluid in texture and has a low viscosity.
  • Grease: is made up of base oil, thickener, and additional additives& a solid and semi-solid gelatinous substance composed of petroleum derivatives and a metal soap
  • Penetrating Lubricant: Penetrating oil, also known as penetrating fluid, is very low-viscosity oil. It can be used to free rusted mechanical parts .
  • Dry lubricants or solid lubricants are materials that, despite being in the solid phase, are able to reduce friction between two surfaces sliding against.The two main dry lubricants are graphite and molybdenum disulfide. They offer lubrication at temperatures higher than liquid and oil-based lubricants operate. Dry lubricants are often used in applications such as locks or dry lubricated bearings

PCMO : Passeger Car Motor Oil  .

Engine oil is made according to two mandatory standards :

*SAE ( Society of Automotive Engineers) = motor oil  quality grade = SAE quality level =viscosity grades  &SAE about is quality of motor oil at cold &hot working situation

  *API ( American Petroleum Institute ) =Engine technology manufacturing year   = API performance level formulation and is marketed.API is  Engine manufacturing technology.  


API about is technology of engine performance sparke ( gasolines) engine from SA,...SN,SP& diesel engine from CA,...,CK-4,FA-4

 The ILSAC standards, denoted by the terminology ILSAC GF-x, are based upon the API service categories and bring additional performance requirements, for example fuel economy improvement, and restrictions in the viscosity grades that may claim to meet an ILSAC standard.

ILSAC, International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee, is formed in 1992 by AAMA (American Automobile Manufacturers Association, representatives of DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corporation) and JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association) to define the need, parameters, licensing and administration of lubricant specifications. Together with the Tripartite system (API, SAE and ASTM) the formed EOLCS, the Engine Oil Licensing and Certification System. ILSAC oils often carry the API Service Symbol (Donut) including the Energy Conserving designation and/or API Certification Mark (Starburst).




Engine oil is the most widely used lubricant in the automotive industry and is one of the largest profitable markets in the world.

Engine oil is also made from two big types of base oils :

---mineral bases            : group 1 & 2 & 3

---Fullu synthetic bases : group 4 ( PAO)  &  group5  ( ESTER )





Important Note : semi synthetic motor oils  are only blend of two base oils : ( %X mineral oil ,groups 2 or 3   +   %Y synthetic ,groups 4 or 5 ) , and depend on  process & formulations.semi synthetic is not API base oil group .It is only for the purpose of market sales by companies.





First it’s handy to understand that there are different kinds of oils suited to specific 4 types of vehicle engines. These include:

  • 1-Conventional(mineral) oil: Also known as mineral motor oils, this is the stuff that comes out the ground and has been refined to a range of viscosity grades  and quality levels. This is recommended for common engine designs and regular driving styles.
  • 2-Fully Synthetic Oil: Synthetic motor oil starts off as mineral oil but has gone through a chemically engineered process to give the oil molecules a more uniform shape with fewer impurities and better properties. It has better extreme high temperature and low temperature performance making it more suitable for modern high-performance cars.
  • 3-Synthetic ,Mineral Blend ( semi synthetic) Oil: This is a mixture of synthetic and conventional base oils. It resists engine oxidation better than conventional oil and also performs better at low and high temperatures and under heavy loads, which makes it a good choice for large vehicles such as 4WDs.
  • 4-High Mileage Oil: This is specially formulated for vehicles with more than 120,000kms on the clock and has additives that help reduce oil burn-off and prevent leaks.
Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any one of various substances that consist of base oils enhanced with various additives, particularly antiwear additives, detergents, dispersants, and, for multi-grade oils, viscosity index improvers.Motor oil is used for lubrication of internal combustion engines.
The main function of motor oil is to reduce friction and wear on moving parts and to clean the engine from sludge (one of the functions of dispersants) and varnish (detergents). It also neutralizes acids that originate from fuel and from oxidation of the lubricant (detergents), improves sealing of piston rings, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts.

In addition to the aforementioned basic constituents, almost all lubricating oils contain corrosion and oxidation inhibitors. Motor oil may be composed of only a lubricant base stock in the case of non-detergent oil, or a lubricant base stock plus additives to improve the oil's detergency, extreme pressure performance, and ability to inhibit corrosion of engine parts.

Motor oils are blended using base oils composed of petroleum-based hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO), or their mixtures in various proportions, sometimes with up to 20% by weight of esters for better dissolution of additives.




4 Types Of Automotive Lubricants

The increasing demand for automotive lubricants has led the global market to invent many different types of industrial lubricants. These include synthetic as well as traditional lubricants, and they each serve different purposes.

All of these can be categorized into four major types

1. Engine Oil And Gear Oil

Engine oil (also known as motor oil) is usually very fluid in texture and has a low viscosity. We usually use conventional oil (also known as mineral oil) or synthetic oil for lubrication.

Both these oils contain a base oil — generally of crude oil base stock — and additives .The additives help enhance the oil quality and increase fuel efficiency since lubricating oil is typically used for engine parts..

For bearings and gearboxes, you may use gear oil as a gear lubricant.Gear oil usually has a higher viscosity for better protection against wear.

Also, don’t get engine oil and brake fluid mixed up.They may share a similar amber color, but where the engine oil is a lubricant, brake fluid is a hydraulic fluid and serves a different purpose..

Need to change your motor oil Learn how to change engine oil with this detailed guide.?

2. Grease

Automotive grease is usually made up of base oil, thickener, and additional additives.

Grease has a similar function to that of oil, but it is far thicker and stickier in consistency. This quality makes it ideal for gears, linkages, bearings, and chains.

However, avoid using grease for fast-moving engine parts as they may get stuck.

The increasing demand in the automotive lubricants market also saw the introduction of synthetic grease in the global market.

This grease is made up of a synthetic lubricant, such as silicone, and can function well under high-demand situations such as mechanical pressure.

Synthetic grease may also act as a transmission fluid in certain cases and help with high torque transmission. It is also one of the high-performance lubricants that can withstand extreme temperatures.

3. Penetrating Lubricant

Penetrating lubricant usually contains a very low-viscosity base oil that makes it very fluid and flowy.

Penetrating lubricant is very refined; therefore, perfect for fast-moving engine parts that would be slowed down by the resistance caused by automotive grease. However, it isn’t very long-lasting and requires frequent reapplications.

It is better suited for loosening bolts, nuts and infiltrating small cracks rather than serving as lubricating oil. For example, it helps break up the rust, like when you need to loosen a corroded bolt off a rotor hub.

4. Dry Lubricant 

A dry lubricant is composed of a liquid (like water or alcohol) and fine particles of any dry lubricant (like graphite). Available in a spray bottle, the liquid evaporates after a while, leaving behind a thin layer of dry lubrication.

Engine oil and automotive grease often attract a lot of dust due to their fluid nature. They are also prone to oxidation at high temperatures (even synthetic lubricants oxidate after a point).

On the other hand, dry lubricants are a very convenient and mess-free way to lubricate your car parts.

This lubricant is best used on small locks, hinges, threaded rods, and engine parts that could otherwise get stuck with grease.



You now know the four types of lubricants. Each of these conventional and synthetic lubricants serves different purposes.The life of your car engine largely depends on the type of engine oil you use; Therefore, to increase the life of your engine, you must use high-quality engine oil suitable for your car. With these interpretations, choosing a suitable engine oil for the car is very important.

Having a healthy engine with a longer life requires feeding the engine with a suitable engine oil. Failure to use the right oil will cause the car engine parts to be damaged and eventually the engine will be seriously damaged. Since replacing engine parts is very difficult and involves a lot of costs, it is better to use the right engine oil so as not to incur additional and staggering costs for repairing or replacing the car engine.


How To Choose The Right Automotive Lubricant

The growth of the global automotive lubricants market has resulted in tons of lubricant and transmission fluid options. The type of lubricant you choose will ultimately depend on the task at hand and the application requirements.

Grease would serve better for lubrication of wheel bearings, for example. It would create a stronger, more long-lasting barrier against friction as compared to engine oil.  

Your safest bet is to consult the vehicle manual.

The right lubricant must meet international standards, including being API, ACEA, JASO, or ILSAC certified. Also, ensure that you pick a lubricant that retains its viscosity through varying temperatures.

You may also speak to a car mechanic for your lubricating oil needs and car care issues.

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