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World-Class AOP

Lubricant oil analysis program is one of the most important industrial sectors that saves devices and saves money, reduces running costs and reduces repairs.
But this program must be subject to a special order and process based on the experience gained and sufficient technical knowledge of experts. Therefore, the following items are mandatory during the implementation of a good program of tests and it is necessary to follow carefully.
Yekta lubrication team with very valuable and valuable experience of 30 years in lubrication and lubricants and industrial machinery can bring a regular, continuous and quality program for your organization and this gift will greatly reduce your repair costs and increase efficiency. Will guarantee your devices.

important : Yekta Company, with its experienced personnel, performs the entire process of the lubricant analysis program in the best possible way for the customers in a guaranteed and stable manner.

Let's reach :
1-Identifying the place and device for sampling
2- Correct sampling from the right place
3- Transfer of the sample container to the lubricants laboratory
4- Carrying out tests of the defined standards of the international protocol& including ASTM  D4378
5- Record the results in a special log
6- Analyzing the results obtained from the experiments of experienced experts
7- Sending technical results and analyzes to the responsible official


Designing a World-Class Oil Analysis Program

Anyone who has read Practicing Oil Analysis magazine on a regular basis over the past five years should be well versed on the impact oil analysis can have in helping improve equipment reliability and maintaining production uptime.

From providing a predictive early warning of impending failure, to seeking a proactive root cause solution, there can be little doubt that oil analysis is an effective condition-monitoring tool.

However, for every success story, there’s a litany of stories recounting problems missed and failures that have occurred despite routine oil sampling.
When this occurs, the usual reaction is to blame either the technology or the oil analysis lab for having failed to warn of impending doom. In extreme cases, the temptation may be to seek out a different lab which, rightly or wrongly, is billed as “better” than the incumbent lab.

Steps to Designing a World-Class Oil Analysis Program:


Step No. 1. Initial Program Setup

A program designed around this type of sound footing, requires development of an overall oil analysis strategy in conjunction with a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). This is often performed as part of a more comprehensive Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) program.


The FMEA process looks at each critical asset, and based on component type, application and historical failures, allows test slates, sampling frequencies and targets and limits to be selected. These items will address the most likely or prevalent root cause of the failure.

Now let’s think about the maximum permissible water, which should be set as a goal-based limit from an FMEA and criticality assessment. If the plant FMEA indicates a need to keep water content below 200 ppm (0.02 percent), then the only option to trend water content over time to ensure compliance would be the Karl Fischer test, because Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR )is typically insensitive below 500 to 1,000 ppm.

Step No. 2. Sampling Strategy

Of all the factors involved in developing an effective program, sampling strategy has perhaps the single largest impact on success or failure. With oil analysis, the adage “garbage in, garbage out” definitely applies. While most oil analysis labs can provide advice on where and how to sample different components, the ultimate responsibility for sampling strategy must rest on the end user’s shoulders.


Take the real-life example of a reliability engineer at a plywood plant who had outright rejected oil analysis as an effective conditioning-monitoring technique.

His misguided belief was based on the notion that because the plant he worked at had experienced four hydraulic pump failures in the past two years, none of which had been picked up by oil analysis, the technology simply did not work. But is it really the technology that’s at fault?


When the same engineer was asked from where in the system he was taking the sample, he seemed genuinely shocked that anyone would sample a hydraulic system anywhere other than the reservoir.

However, by doing so, any wear debris from the failing pump would show up only in the oil sample bottle after finding its way through the system, which included valve blocks, untold numbers of actuators and a 3-micron return line filter, and into a 5,000-gallon reservoir where it would be diluted.





Step No. 3. Data Logging and Sample Analysis

Assuming the sampling strategy is correct and the program has been designed based on sound reliability engineering goals; it is now up to the lab to ensure the sample provides the necessary information.

The first stage is to make sure the sample, and subsequent data, is logged in the correct location so trend analysis and rate-of-change limits can be applied.


That is the lab’s responsibility, right? What if two successive samples are labeled slightly different? For example, two samples are labeled unit IDs GB-3456 and 3456.

While logic might tell us that the prefix GB simply means “gearbox,” imagine the difficulty the lab faces, confronted with as many as 2,000 samples daily.


While carelessness and inattentiveness on the part of the lab are inexcusable, it is incumbent on the end user to ensure the consistency of information that is logged and used for diagnostic interpretation.

Once the sample has been properly set up at the lab, the actual sample analysis is next. This is an area where end users are definitely at the mercy of the lab and its quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures. For example, how does the lab sequence tests?

 the lab is requested to run a particle count, does it perform this test first to minimize the possibility of further lab procedures contaminating the sample, or is it left until last?


How often does the lab run QA samples - samples of known chemical composition inserted in the daily run to ensure test instruments are within acceptable QC limits? Does it run them every 10 samples, every 50, or not at all?

What happens if a QA sample fails? Does the lab retest the customer samples back to the last QA sample that passed, or does it simply recalibrate the instrument and move on?

What about the technicians who are actually running the tests? Are they high school graduates who have been hired as cheap labor, or are they chemical technicians or degreed chemists?


What about training specific to used oil analysis? Have the lab techs been sent to any training courses and have they obtained any industry- recognized qualifications such as ICML’s LLA (Laboratory Lubricant Analyst) certification?      ICML = Internation Council for Machinery Lubrication

Step No. 4. Data Diagnosis and Prognosis

Diagnostic and prognostic interpretation of the data is perhaps the step where the most antagonistic relationship can develop between the lab and its customers.

For some customers, there is a misguided belief that for a $10 oil sample, they should receive a report that indicates which widget is failing, why it is failing and how long that widget can be left in service before failure will occur. If only it were that simple!


The lab’s role is to evaluate the data so that complex chemical concepts such as acid number or the presence of dark-metallo oxides makes sense to people who may have many years of maintenance experiences, but haven’t taken a high school chemistry class in many years.


The lab cannot be expected to know - unless it is specifically informed - that a particular component has been running hot for a few months, that the process generates thrust loading on the bearings, or that a new seal was recently installed on a specific component that is now showing signs of excess water in the oil sample.


Evaluating data and making meaningful condition-based monitoring (CBM) decisions is a symbiotic process. The end user needs the lab diagnosticians’ expertise to make sense of the data, while the lab needs the in-plant expertise of the end user who is intimately familiar with each component, its functionality, and what maintenance or process changes may have occurred recently that could impact the oil analysis data.

Likewise, evaluating data in a vacuum, without other supporting technologies such as vibration analysis and thermography, can also detract from the effectiveness of the CBM process.

Step No. 5. Performance Tracking and Cost Benefit Analysis

Oil analysis is most effective when it is used to track metrics or benchmarks set forth in the planning stage. For example, the goal may be to improve the overall fluid cleanliness levels in the plant’s hydraulic press by using improved filtration. In this case, oil analysis - and specifically the particle count data - becomes a performance metric that can be used to measure compliance with the stated reliability goals.


Metrics provide accountability, not just for those directly involved with the oil analysis program, but for the whole plant, sending a clear message that lubrication and oil analysis are an important part of the plant’s strategy for achieving both maintenance and production objectives.

The final stage is to evaluate, typically on an annual basis, the effectiveness of the oil analysis program.


This includes a cost benefit evaluation of maintenance “saves” due to oil analysis. Evaluation allows for continuous improvement of the program by realigning the program with either preexisting or new reliability objectives.At a molecular level, viscosity is a result the interaction between the different molecules in a fluid. This can be also understood as friction between the molecules in the fluid.
viscosity, resistance of aflow of liquid or gas to a change in shape, or movement of neighbouring portions relative to one another. Viscosity denotes opposition to flow.
The reciprocal of the viscosity is called the fluidity, a measure of the ease of flow. for example, has a greater viscosity than water.
Because part of a fluid that is forced to move carries along to some extent adjacent parts, viscosity may be thought of as internal friction between the molecules. such friction opposes the development of velocity differences within a fluid. Viscosity is a major factor in determining the forces that must be overcome when fluids are used in lubrication and transported in pipelines. It controls the liquid flow in such processes as spraying, injection molding, and surface coating.



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Oil Condition Monitoring (OCM) or Used Oil Analysis (UOA) predictive maintenance programmes help clients avoid costly machinery, engine and power-train failures by tracking changes in machinery lubricant quality. Providing vital ‘early-warning’ of impending problems and supporting smooth and reliable machinery operation.


Operational issues in machines, engines and other components are often reflected in the condition of the lubricant oil being used. Regularly scheduled oil condition monitoring or used oil analysis can identify mechanical problems before they impact the efficient running of machinery, avoiding costly headaches later on.


Lubricants have to work under demanding conditions, exposed to constant high pressures, temperatures and other harmful factors, including water contamination, corrosion, fuel, and air ingested particles. High levels of wear particles give advance warning of possible machinery malfunction, allowing early remedial action to be taken.

Where analytical results suggest no undue wearing is taking place, the operator may extend the interval between services or oil changes.

Scheduled lubricant testing and expert advice can avoid and mitigate costly component or system failures and unscheduled maintenance.


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Lubricant oil condition monitoring tests:


  ASTM IP Other
Acid Number D664, D974 177,139 ISO6619, ISO 6618
Air Release Test D3427 313 ISO 9120
Appearance visual    
Ash D482 4 ISO 6245
Ash Sulfated Residue D874 163 ISO 3987
Ball Rust Test D6557    
Base Number D2896, D4739 276 ISO 3771
Blotterspot Test      
Boiling Range Distribution D6352    
Brookfield Viscosity D2983    
Chlorine (Bomb Method) D808    
Cloud Point D2500 219 ISO 3015
Color D1500 196 ISO 2049
Conradson Carbon Residue D4530 398 ISO 10370
Corrosion Bench Test D5968    
Corrosion Bench Test (HT) D6594    
Demulsification Number   19  
Density 15°C D4052 365 ISO 12185
Emulsion Characteristics of Petroleum oils D1401   ISO 6614
Ferrography PQ-Index     PQ-index
Flash Point COC D92 36 ISO 2592
Flash Point PM D93 34 ISO 2719
Flash Point Setaflash D3828 303 ISO 3680
Foaming Characteristics of Lub. Oil D892 146  
Fuel Dilution D322, D3525, D3524 23 FTIR
Fuel Dilution, Fast     Perkin Elmer Method
Gel Index D5133    
Glycol, GLC, FTIR     DIN 51375-1, GC-Headspace, FTIR
Glycol Glytek D2982    
Grease Testing      
High Temp High Shear Viscosity D4683, D6616    
Infrared Scan     FTIR
Insoluble in Pentane D893, D4055    
Insoluble in Toluene D893    
KRL Tapered Bearing Shear Loss     CEC-L-45-A-99
Kurt Orbahn Injector Shear Loss D6278, D7109   CEC-L-14-A-93
Metals (additive) D6443, D4927    
Metals (wear+additive) D4951, D5185    
Millipore Filtration     ISO 4405
Minirotary Viscometer D4684    
Nitration     IR 1959/2132
Nitrogen D4629, D5762    
NOACK (Selby) D5800    
Oxidation Induction Time (PDSC) D6186   CEC-L-85-T-99
Oxidation test for Lub. Oil D943 48  
Oxidation/Nitration, using FTIR     In-house, DIN 51453
Particle Count     ISO 4406, 4407, NAS
Particulate matter D5452 M    
PCB's     IVM 87, DIN 51527/BAGA
Peroxide Number D3703    
Phosphorous D4951    
Pour Point D97 15 ISO 3016
Precipitation Number D91    
Ramsbottom Carbon Residue D524 14 ISO 4262
Rotating Pressure Vessel Oxidation Test (RBOT) (RPVOT) D2272    
RULER Oil Test      
Rust Preventing Test ( Proc. A or B) D665 135 ISO 7120
Saponification No. D94 136 ISO 6293
Soot, Soot(TGA) D5967   DIN 51452, FTIR, Wilkes
Specific Gravity D287, D1298    
Sulfur D2622, D4294, D5453    
Sulfur (Bomb) D129 61  
Thermal Stability of Heat Transfer Fluids D6743    
Thermo-Oxidation of Engine Oil Simulation Test D6335, D7097    
Trace Sediment D2273    
Viscosity 20°C - 100°C D 445 71 ISO 3104
Viscosity Houillon 40°C - 100°C      
Viscosity Index D2270 226 ISO 2909
Volatility of Oils D6417    
Water D95 74 ISO 3733, BS 4385
Water Karl Fischer E 1064 M, D6304    
*Other test methods available on request      

Additional testing for Fresh lubes:
High Temperature Foaming D6082    
Homogeneity & Miscibility D6922    
Volatility Loss CEC L-40    
CCS D5293    
Nitrogen D3228, D4629    
Kinematic viscosity @ - 40 ( Brake Fluid) D445    
Copper Strip Corrosion D130    
Chloride D4929, UOP 779    
There can be little doubt that oil analysis is an integral part of any condition-based maintenance program. When used effectively, it can warn of impending failure, direct us to the root cause of a problem, or point to areas of opportunity we perhaps didn’t know existed.

However, just like you wouldn’t buy a used car without checking under the hood, taking it for a test drive and kicking the tires, don’t merely assume that filling the sample bottle with oil and sending it to the lab will produce the desired results. Get involved, ask questions, visit the lab and take control of your oil analysis program - it may be the best investment in time you ever made!

you can confidently and powerfully contact our team , and contact us to provide you with the most appropriate lubrication program and related tests in accordance with global standards.
All you have to do is contact us and complete your order with the financial department. And during your world-class .lubrication program, the Yekta team will be by your side


NOTE & sources : more thanks  NORIA , ICML , ASTM , IP , DIN , intertak , saybolt , chevron , API   .