Petroleum

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Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling. Drilling is carried out after studies of structural geology, sedimentary basin analysis, and reservoir characterisation. Recent developments in technologies have also led to exploitation of other unconventional reserves such as oil sands and oil shale. Once extracted, oil is refined and separated, most easily by distillation, into numerous products for direct use or use in manufacturing, such as gasoline (petrol), diesel and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 100 million barrels (16 million cubic metres) each day. Petroleum production can be extremely profitable and was important for economic development in the 20th century, with some countries, so called "oil states", gaining significant economic and international power because of their control of oil production. Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons that occur on Earth in liquid, gaseous, or solid form. The term is often restricted to the liquid form, commonly called crude oil. But, as a technical term, petroleum also includes natural gas and the viscous or solid form known as bitumen, which is found in tar sands.
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crud 1 .
Crude oil, Gas Condensate, petroleum products, lubricants are a very important part of the projects and activities of the YEKTA oil&  gas company. The type of crude oil, how the processes of converting it into petroleum products, how to modify some of their standard specifications have always increased the level of experience and awareness of the company's experts.
 very Important note :
1- Crude oil and gas condensate have only specifications.They never have standard specifications.
 2. All petroleum products from crude oil and gas condensate refining , without exception, have standard specifications around the world .  Because many of them are used worldwide.for example :commercial jet fuels or gasolines and trading.
Of course, for domestic consumption, a separate standard may be followed. 
 
Crude oil refining process:

* Semi-final products: H2,C1,C2,C3,nC4,iC4,Penthane ,natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases, light naphtha( L.S.R.G), heavy naphtha( H.S.R.G) , ORD : One Run Distillation : the same heavy naphtha , kerosine , gasoil , LLC , HLC , ISO Feed  , fresh feed ,fuel oil , bitumen , sulfure

* Final products: Natural Gas (general use) , LPG (capsule) , car gasolines , aviation gasolines , JP4 , JP5 ,  JP8, kerosine , ATK s , Gasoils , lubricants material for base oil ,AW s , Fuel oils , Bitumen ,sulfure
 
Gas condensate refining process: The final products are Euro standards: NG , LPG , gasolines, kerosines , gasoils 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petroleum, in one form or another, has been used since ancient times, and is now important across society, including in economy, politics and technology. The rise in importance was due to the invention of the internal combustion engine, the rise in commercial aviation, and the importance of petroleum to industrial organic chemistry, particularly the synthesis of plastics, fertilisers, solvents, adhesives and pesticides.

More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring on Zacynthus. Great quantities of it were found on the banks of the river Issus, one of the tributaries of the Euphrates. Ancient Persian tablets indicate the medicinal and lighting uses of petroleum in the upper levels of their society.

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As you can see in the two figures above, in the production process in an oil refinery, most petroleum products are semi-finished and after removing non-standard items and mixing in the refinery planning unit, they become the final product and are sent to the market.
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Please note the geometry and type of crude oil &  petroleum products tanks, why they are different؟

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